Edenville Dam
Aerial view of the Sanford Dam on the Tittabawassee River in Michigan on May 26, 2020, after its failure a week earlier. Heavy rains from a 1-in-200-year rainstorm destroyed the upstream Edenville Dam, damaged five other dams, and caused $250 million in damage. (Image credit: Michigan Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy)

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) gave America’s infrastructure a C- grade in its quadrennial assessment issued March 3. ASCE gave the nation’s flood control infrastructure – dams and levees – a D grade. This is a highly concerning assessment, given that climate change is increasingly stressing dams and levees as increased evaporation from the oceans drives heavier precipitation events.

U.S. dams need $93.6 billion in upgrades

The group’s 2021 report card gave the nation’s 91,000-plus dams a D grade, jus as they had received in each of its assessments since the first one was issued in 1998. Drawing upon the latest data from the Association of State Dam Safety Officials, ASCE estimated the cost of rehabilitating all U.S. dams at $93.6 billion, of which $27.6 billion is needed for federal dams. Over half (56.4%) of U.S. dams are privately owned. The cost to rehabilitate deficient high-hazard-potential dams, whose failure would result in loss of life, is estimated at nearly $20 billion. Over 2,300 dams in the U.S. are in this category. The average age of America’s dams is 57 years.

The report identified one program that can help address existing funding needs – the High Hazard Potential Dam Rehabilitation Program authorized in the 2016 Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act. The goal of this program is to help fund the repair, removal, or rehabilitation of the nation’s non-federal, high-hazard-potential dams. In federal fiscal year 2020, Congress appropriatedĀ  $10 million for the program, less than 0.1% of the state dam safety group’s needs estimate, and a quarter of the $40 million Congress had authorized for the program.

Oroville Dame
Figure 1. Debris fills the Feather River from the damaged spillway of California’s Oroville Dam, the nation’s tallest dam, after its near-collapse in February 2017. The Oroville incident forced the evacuation of nearly 190,000 people and cost $1.1 billion in repairs. (Image credit: California Department of Water Resources)

A 2019 story by the Associated Press reported that the most recent U.S. fatalities from a dam failure were in March 2019, when the 92-year-old Spencer Dam on the Niobrara River in Nebraska failed, killing one person. The most recent previous dam failure fatalities involved seven people killed on Hawaii’s Kauai Island in 2006 after the earthen wall of the Kaloko Reservoir collapsed.

At least five fatal dam failures occurred in the 1970s – Teton Dam, Idaho (14 deaths), Kelly Barnes, Georgia (39 deaths), Buffalo Creek coal slurry impoundment dam, West Virginia (125 deaths), Rapid City, South Dakota (238 deaths), and Johnstown, Pennsylvania (84 deaths). These failures ushered in the modern dam safety era. AP reported that many states have problematic private dams whose owners can’t be identified. In 2018, for instance, Rhode Island listed 32 high- or significant-hazard dams with safety concerns and unknown owners.

Video: Michigan dam break shows how climate change strains infrastructure

A 2019 YaleEnvironment360 story by Jacques Leslie reported that “many people living on property that would be flooded if a dam fails are unaware of that possibility, in part because federal officials blocked public access to inundation maps after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. In recent years, some states have again made the maps available. California requires that prospective buyers be informed if a property is in an inundation zone, a practice that should be far more widespread.” The 2021 ASCE report card recommended initiating a public awareness campaign that would alert residents of the location and condition of dams in their area.

Levee on Missouri River
Figure 2. The L-550 levee on the Missouri River overtopping during the spring 2011 floods. (Image credit: USACE)

U.S. levees need more than $21 billion in upgrades

In spring 2019, the midwest U.S. experienced severe flooding, causing over $20 billion in damage. More than 80 Corps of Engineers levee systems were overtopped or breached, sometimes multiple times, and more than 700 miles of levees were damaged. Levee repairs were estimated at $1 billion. However, the Army Corps estimated that the levees prevented almost $350 billion in flood damages from October 2018 to September 2019. At least 17 million people live or work behind a levee, and U.S. levees protect $2.3 trillion in property, so the condition of these levees is critical. In addition, approximately 1,400 sites listed in the federal Toxic Release Inventory – including many EPA Superfund sites – lie in areas at high risk of flooding, according to a 2018 New York Times analysis.

In that context, the Civil Engineers’ 2021 report card grade of D for the nation’s 40,000 miles of levees is concerning. Drawing upon the latest data from the Corps of Engineers, the ASCE says in its report card that $21 billion is needed to improve and maintain just the moderate to high-risk levees in the Corps of Engineers portfolio. That is about 15% of the known levees in the U.S.

U.S. levees are, on average, 50 years old, many built using engineering standards less rigorous than current best practices. Encouragingly, fewer than 4% of U.S. levees are rated high or very high risk, down from 5% in 2017. However, 80% of high- or very high-risk levees have issues that likely would result in a breach prior to overtopping in an extreme flood, the report said.

The report card identified one program that can help address existing funding needs – the National Levee Safety Program. In federal fiscal year (FY) 2021 this program was funded at $5 million, just 0.02% of the $21 billion needed to repair just 15% of U.S. levees, and only 6% of its FY21 $79 million authorization.

Downpours graphic
Figure 3. The change in heavy downpours (defined as the top 1% of precipitation events) from 1958-2016, from the 2018 U.S. National Climate Assessment. (Image credit: Climate Central)

Climate change is driving more precipitation and river flood damages

Increased precipitation in the U.S. in recent decades, partially the result of climate change, has caused an additional $2.5 billion a year in U.S. flood damages, according to a January 2021 study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The researches, climate scientists at Stanford University, found that between 1988 and 2017, heavier precipitation accounted for more than one-third of the $200 billion in damage. Causing heavier downpours, “Climate change may be exacerbating the cost of flooding,” the authors concluded.

In an interview with E&E News, study co-author Noel Diffenbaugh said that “there is real economic value in avoiding higher levels of global warming. That’s not a political statement. That’s a factual statement about costs. And it also shows that there’s real economic value to adaptation and resilience because we’re clearly not adapted to the climate change that’s already happened.”

U.S. river floods are increasing in frequency

The number of “extreme streamflow” events observed in U.S. river systems since 1910 has increased significantly, according to a December 2020 study from Dartmouth College.

‘We’re evacuating!’ Wedding interrupted when disaster strikes

Along rivers that observed significant changes in streamflow in recent decades, the incidence of extreme streamflow events has doubled in frequency since the 1950-1969 period. Evan Dethier, a postdoctoral researcher at Dartmouth and lead author of the paper, said in an interview with phys.org that “the shifts toward more extreme events are especially important given the age of our dams, bridges, and roads. The changes to river flows that we found are important for those who manage or depend on this type of infrastructure.”

Bob Henson contributed to this post.

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Topics: Weather Extremes
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John Rich
John Rich
1 month ago

It seems this is a good talking point if a person was attempting to talk to someone who is caught up in trumpism and the whole fake news / malevolent manipulation networks and doesn’t believe science and engineering news. The underlying stories of the survivors of the Johnstown Flood in Pennsylvania in 1977 are the type of thing that skeptics respond and relate to.

HawaiiBrian
HawaiiBrian
1 month ago

To be fair, the American Society of Civil Engineers is an interest group that wants more funding of civil engineering projects. But their main point is well taken. We haven’t invested as much in infrastructure as we should have. Infrastructure spending as a percentage of our GDP has been falling since 1968. We will see what President Biden’s forthcoming infrastructure bill contains and whether it is passed.

John Rich
John Rich
1 month ago
Reply to  HawaiiBrian

ASCE would be professionally negligent if they didn’t do the reviews, analysis and reporting that they provide to the public and government agencies.

HawaiiBrian
HawaiiBrian
1 month ago
Reply to  John Rich

A group can be professional and still advocate for their side. The ASCE’s grades for US infrastructure have been at C- or worse since the 1980s.

William Locke
William Locke
1 month ago

Your treatment of levees is short-sighted. Building levees has subsidized development of floodprone areas. Thus the “prevention of $350 billion in damages” is vastly overstated. The most cost-effective solution would be to remove most levees. Fat chance!

NSAlito
NSAlito
1 month ago
Reply to  William Locke

Along with removing many levees, I’m a fan of building notched* or V-shaped weirs along some parts of the levee such that the river itself “decides” when to flood a spillway. It removes the political problem of having someone make a decision (with resulting litigation) about when and how many floodgates to open (as with the Bonnet Carre’ along the Mississippi).

________
*Wide flat weir for flood conditions with an inset smaller notch to allow small spill flow most of the time.

Last edited 1 month ago by NSAlito
SocraticGadfly
1 month ago
Reply to  NSAlito

Speaking of gates, what about the Old River Control Structure? Someday a flooding Mississippi’s gonna permanently jump that and the Atchafalaya will once again be the “New” Mississippi.

Robert Kastigar
Robert Kastigar
1 month ago
Reply to  SocraticGadfly

https://www.wunderground.com/cat6/Americas-Achilles-Heel-Mississippi-Rivers-Old-River-Control-Structure

Part 1 with links to Part 2 and 3 on this Old River Control Structure along the Mississippi River

fyrebyrd042
fyrebyrd042
1 month ago

Thanks Doc…Dams kind of scare me. I’ve seen how powerful floods can be (I was in Binghamton for the 2011 flood caused by Irene). I’ve also been reading (quite randomly) about glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) recently. I can’t imagine something like the Bonneville or Missoula floods happening today.