Iota satellite image
The strongest Atlantic storm of 2020, Hurricane Iota, as seen at 10 a.m. EST November 16. At the time, Iota, a category 5 storm with 160 mph winds and a central pressure of 917 mb, was approaching landfall in northern Nicaragua. (Image credit: NASA Earth Observatory)

The brutal 2020 Atlantic hurricane season has officially ended, after generating an extraordinary 30 named storms (highest on record), 13 hurricanes (second highest on record), and six major hurricanes (tied for second highest on record). But fittingly, the busiest season on record refuses to go out quietly: As of December 1, a low-pressure system with the potential to become Subtropical Storm Kappa was located over the northeastern Atlantic, off the coast of Portugal, with two-day odds of development of 10%.

The 2020 season was notable not only for its record number of named storms (after breaking into the Greek alphabet by the ridiculously early date of September 18), but also for its record number of rapidly intensifying storms (10); and record number of landfalling U.S. named storms (12). Let’s not forget the record-breaking November activity – two catastrophic hurricanes hit Central America in November, including Hurricane Iota, the latest category 5 storm ever recorded in the Atlantic. At least seven hurricanes from 2020 will be worthy of having their names retired: Iota, Eta, Zeta, Delta, Sally, Laura, and Isaias – although there is still no official mechanism for retiring storm names from the Greek alphabet. The record for most names retired in one season was set in 2005, when five hurricanes had their names retired.

(Check out this 76-second animation by Jake Carstens showing the National Hurricane Center (NHC) tropical weather outlooks for the entire season; 42 seconds into the video gets particularly insane, when September starts.)

Figure 1. Every single mile of the U.S. Atlantic coast was under a watch or warning related to tropical cyclones at some point in 2020. (Image credit: National Weather Service, Corpus Christi)

An unprecedented battering of the U.S.

The U.S. suffered an extraordinary 12 landfalls by named storms in 2020, smashing the previous record of nine in 1916. Six hurricanes made a U.S. landfall, tying 2020 with 1985 and 1886 for most U.S. hurricane landfalls. Every single mile of the mainland U.S. Atlantic coast, from Texas to Maine, was under a watch or warning related to tropical cyclones at some point in 2020. Only five counties along that stretch avoided tropical storm-force winds, according to an analysis by Kyle Noel. Louisiana was hit by five named storms, the most ever to make landfall in one season in the state (old record: four in 2002).

Hurricane Laura was the strongest and most damaging landfalling U.S. hurricane of 2020, hitting southwestern Louisiana as a category 4 storm with 150 mph winds on August 27. Laura was tied as the fifth-strongest hurricane on record to make a continental U.S. landfall, and tied the Last Island Hurricane of 1856 as the strongest landfalling hurricane in Louisiana history. Incredibly, on October 9, Hurricane Delta made landfall as a category 2 hurricane with 100 mph winds just 12 miles to the east of where Laura hit. Insurance broker Aon estimates that Laura caused $16 billion in damage, and Delta $4 billion.

Figure 2. The 12 U.S. landfalling named storms in 2020. (Image credit: Steve Bowen, Aon)

Aon estimates that the total U.S. damage from 2020’s hurricanes and tropical storms was $37 billion, ranking as the eighth highest total on record. Fortunately, three of the six hurricanes that hit the U.S. struck relatively sparsely populated portions of the Louisiana coast, so the 2020 damages could have been far worse. Each of the six hurricanes that hit the U.S., however, caused over $1 billion in losses, breaking the record of four billion-dollar hurricanes in a season (adjusted for inflation), set in 2004 and 2005.

Figure 3. Satellite-estimated rainfall from November 1-22, 2020, over Central America, during the time that Hurricane Eta and Hurricane Iota made landfall. (Image credit: NASA Giovanni)

Catastrophic impacts in Central America from Eta and Iota

The most catastrophic Atlantic storm of 2020 was Hurricane Eta, which made landfall in northern Nicaragua on November 3 as a category 4 storm with 140 mph winds. Moving very slowly at landfall, Eta lingered for three days over Central America and the adjacent waters, dropping catastrophic amounts of rainfall in excess of 20 inches in some regions.

Flooding from Eta’s rains killed at least 215 people and left 49 missing, primarily in Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Panama, according to a preliminary tabulation released on November 12 by insurance broker Aon, making Eta the fourth-deadliest Atlantic hurricane to occur in November or December, according to statistics from NHC.

November-landfalling Eta and Iota tormented Honduras and Nicaragua, killing many and wreaking unimaginably costly damages on already fragile economies.

Just two weeks after Hurricane Eta’s devastating impact came Hurricane Iota, which made landfall as a category 4 storm with 155 mph winds in Nicaragua, just 15 miles from where Eta hit. There is no precedent in the Atlantic for two such powerful hurricanes to make landfall so close together in space and time. Iota brought torrential rains that inundated flooded regions still struggling to recover from Eta, with the combined tolls from the two storms exceeding 300 people dead or missing.

The combined impact of the two hurricanes on Nicaragua was estimated at $738 million – about 6% of that nation’s GDP. But the twin category 4 hurricanes left behind a truly extreme catastrophe in Honduras. As explained in a November 22 article in La Prensa, total damages from Hurricane Eta and Hurricane Iota in Honduras may exceed $10 billion – 40% of the poverty-stricken nation’s GDP. According to the Honduras Foreign Debt Forum (Fodesh), a non-governmental organization dedicated to economic affairs, the twin hurricanes will set Honduras back 22 years in economic development.

Eta and Iota severely affected more than four million people in Honduras, destroyed tens of thousands of houses, damaged or destroyed 110 bridges and 267 roads, and wiped out vast areas of productive farmland. Economic activity in northwestern Honduras’ San Pedro Sula Valley, where 60% of Honduras’s GDP comes from, was devastated. The destruction is expected to drive a large migration of destitute people from Honduras to other nations, including to the U.S.: A November 28 article in El Pais reports that the first caravans of migrants have begun to get organized.

Figure 4. Extreme flooding in Copán Ruinas, Honduras, on November 18, in the aftermath of Hurricane Iota. (Image credit: Xiomara Orellana)

A slew of records

The list of single-season and multi-season records established in 2020 is long. Below are the most notable ones, primarily taken from Dr. Phil Klotzbach’s 2020 season summary from November 30.

Multi-season records

– Fifth consecutive year with above-average Atlantic hurricane activity (previous record: four years, 1998-2001).
– Fifth consecutive year with a category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic (previous record: three years, 2003-2005).

Figure 5. The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season featured six major hurricanes, tied for second highest number of intense hurricanes on record. (Image credit: Tweet by Dakota Smith)

Single-season records
– Thirty named storms (previous record: 28 in 2005).
Five category 4 and stronger hurricanes (tied with 2005, 1999, 1961, and 1933).
– Earliest forming ‘C’ named storm and the earliest named storm formation from the ‘E’ storm onwards.
– Ten named storms formed in September (old record: eight in 2002, 2007 and 2010).
– Five named storms formed in the Caribbean after October 1 (Gamma, Delta, Zeta, Eta and Iota), tying the record set in 2005.
– Four major hurricanes formed in the Atlantic basin after October 1 (Delta, Epsilon, Eta and Iota). Old record: two, set in numerous years.
– November produced 20 named storm days, tied with 1932 for most on record in November.
– Three Atlantic named storms formed in November (Eta, Theta and Iota). This ties 2020 with 1931, 1961, 2001 and 2005 for the most November named storm formations on record.
– Twelve Atlantic named storms made landfall in the continental U.S. (previous record: nine in 1916).
– Six Atlantic hurricanes made landfall in the continental U.S. (tied with 1886 and 1985).
– Five named storms made landfall in Louisiana (previous record: four in 2002).
– Hurricane Laura made landfall with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Laura is tied with the Last Island Hurricane of 1856 for the strongest winds for a Louisiana hurricane landfall on record.
– Hurricane Eta made landfall in Nicaragua with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph, making it the strongest November landfalling hurricane in Nicaragua on record. That record was broken just 13 days later by Iota, which hit with 155 mph winds.
– Hurricane Iota became a category 5 hurricane on November 16 – the latest Atlantic calendar year category 5 hurricane on record (previous record: November 8, by the Cuba hurricane of 1932).
– Nine named storms rapidly intensified by at least 35 mph in 24 hours in 2020: Hanna, Laura, Sally, Teddy, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta and Iota. This ties 2020 with 1995 and 2010 for the most rapidly intensifying named storms in a single Atlantic hurricane season on record. Tropical Storm Gamma also met the rapid intensification criteria by intensifying 35 mph in 24 hours, but it was a tropical depression at the start of its rapid intensification phase.
– Three named storm underwent 36-hour intensification of at least 100 mph: Delta, Eta, and Iota. According to an analysis by Sam Lillo, only eight other storms in 169 years of record-keeping accomplished this feat.
– Subtropical Storm Alpha made landfall in Portugal on September 18, becoming the first ever named storm to make landfall in the country. Alpha was also the easternmost-forming named storm on record in the Atlantic. Alpha killed one person in Spain and caused several million dollars (USD) in damages to Portugal and Spain.
– The NOAA Hurricane Hunters flew 86 missions into Atlantic named storms and disturbances, beating the previous record from 2005.

Figure 6. Vertical wind shear during August-September-October over the main development region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes, from the Caribbean to the coast of Africa, was at record low levels in 2020, one of the primary reasons for the active 2020 season. (Image credit: Dr. Phil Klotzbach, Colorado State University)

Also see: How climate change is making hurricanes more dangerous

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Posted on December 1, 2020 (12:33pm EST).

Jeff Masters

Jeff Masters, Ph.D., worked as a hurricane scientist with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990. After a near-fatal flight into category 5 Hurricane Hugo, he left the Hurricane Hunters to pursue a...

47 replies on “A look back at the horrific 2020 Atlantic hurricane season”

  1. Mauritius Meteorological Services
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #4 – 4:30 AM RET December 7 2020
    DEPRESSION TROPICALE 03-20202021
    ==============================================

    Southeast of Diego Garcia
    East Northeast of Rodrigues island

    At 0:00 AM UTC, Tropical Depression 03R (997 hPa) located at 14.2S 83.2E has 10 minute sustained winds of 30 knots with gusts of 45 knots. The depression is reported as moving west southwest at 10 knots.

    Near Gale Force Winds
    =======================
    145 nm from the center in the southern semi-circle

    Dvorak Intensity: T2.0/2.5/D0.5/24 HRS

    Forecast and Intensity
    ========================
    12 HRS 15.1S 81.3E – 35 knots (Tempête Tropicale Modérée)
    24 HRS 15.5S 79.2E – 35 knots (Tempête Tropicale Modérée)
    48 HRS 18.0S 76.5E – 30 knots (Depression Tropicale)
    72 HRS 18.4S 74.7E – 25 knots (Depression se Comblant)

    Additional Information
    ==========================
    Between 1630z and 2200z a convection burst took place near the center and since then the convection has tended to weaken. Microwave data received lately from the 2303z SSMIS F18 pass allowed to better pinpoint the position of the center (with a possible reformation further south compared to the position given by the 1620z ASCAT-C). With Dvorak estimates that have not changed during the last 6 hours, the intensity is left at 30 kts but the microwave data from 2303z suggest that the tropical storm stage is close.

    Little change in the philosophy of track prediction: after this turn towards the south in the last few hours, the system should resume a more west southwestwards or southwestwards track due to the influence of the subtropical ridge further south, until during the night from Monday to Tuesday. With the passage further south of a deep layers trough, the trajectory slows down Tuesday / Wednesday and takes a temporary component towards the southwest or south southwest before the subtropical ridge imposes again a gradually accelerating westward track.

    Along this track, the system NR 03 continues to benefit from a rather favorable window during the next 24/-30hrs: if the deep wind shear is low, the upper levels divergence is sufficient and the oceanic potential is well available, the system could still be subjected tomorrow to a northwesterly mid-levels shear which will tend to increase after 24-30hrs. Under these conditions, the system NR 03 should be able to reach the threshold of moderate tropical storm on Monday and more or less remain there on Tuesday with a less favorable environment. Thereafter, vertical wind shear increases and is associated with marked mid-levels dry intrusions. The system should then rapidly evolve into a remnant low.

    This system pose no threat to inhabited areas.

  2. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #34 – 5:30 AM IST December 5 2020
    DEPRESSION BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================

    At 0:00 AM UTC, The Depression “Burevi” remained practically stationary during past 30 hours and lays centered over Gulf of Mannar near 9.1N 78.6E close to Ramanathapuram District coast, about 40 km southwest of Ramanathapuram, 70 km west southwest of Pamban. The associated wind speed is about 20-25 knots gusting to 30 knots.

    The depression is likely to remain practically stationary over the same region and weaken into a well marked low pressure area during next 12 hours.

    As per satellite imagery, associated broken low/medium clouds with embedded intense to very intense convective cloud lay over southern Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait and Comorin with minimun cloud top temperature -93C.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 25 knots. State of the sea is rough to very rough. The estimated central pressure of the depression is 1002 hPa.

  3. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #33 – 23:30 PM IST December 4 2020
    DEPRESSION BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================

    At 18:00 PM UTC, The Depression “Burevi” remained practically stationary during past 24 hours and lay centered over Gulf of Mannar near 9.1N 78.6E close to Ramanathapuram District coast, about 40 km southwest of Ramanathapuram, 70 km west southwest of Pamban. The associated wind speed is about 25-30 knots with gusts of 35 knots.

    The depression is likely to remain practically stationary over the same region and weaken into a well marked low pressure Area during next 12 hours.

    As per satellite imagery, associated broken low/medium clouds with embedded intense to very intense convective cloud lay over Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait and Comorin with minimum cloud top temperature -93C.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 25 knots. State of the sea is rough to very rough. The estimated central pressure of the depression is 1000 hPa.

  4. Thanks Dr. Masters. The 40% loss of GDP in Honduras is crushing. As you indicate, a country already poor, and now suffering the loss of infrastructure, 110 bridges, 267 roads, large tracts of farmland rendered useless, land that is key to GDP. 22 years to recover. That may not even factor in more hurricanes and more intense ones as the climate warms, knocking the country down again as it tries to get back to functionality. It’s not the only small nation in our back yard. One wonders how such a potential humanitarian crisis will be handled over the next decades.

      1. I live in Pennsylvania, am 71 and retired. So not likely I would take on an ambitious and innovative project such as that. But thanks for bringing it to my attention.

      2. You’re welcome. I’m 66 with advanced brittle bone disease, so I consult online and from the comfort of whatever padded support. Persons with the affluence to network virtually tend not to believe in money for hundreds of millions of unemployed that stays in communities forever, they believe in Caesar’s coin. But it’s coming.

  5. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #32 – 17:30 PM IST December 4 2020
    DEPRESSION BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================

    At 12:00 PM UTC, The Deep Depression “Burevi” remained practically stationary during past 18 hours, weakened into a depression, and lay centered over Gulf of Mannar near 9.1N 78.6E close to Ramanathapuram District coast, about 40 km southwest of Ramanathapuram, 70 km west southwest of Pamban. The associated wind speed is about 25-30 to 35 knots.

    The depression is likely to remain practically stationary over the same region and weaken into a well marked low pressure Area during next 12 hours.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 25 knots. State of the sea is rough to very rough. The estimated central pressure of the depression is 1000 hPa.

  6. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #29 – 5:30 AM IST December 4 2020
    DEEP DEPRESSION BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================

    At 0:00 AM UTC, The Deep Depression “Burevi” moved remained practically stationary during past three hours and lays centered over Gulf of Mannar near 9.1N 78.6E close to Ramanathapuram District coast, about 40 km southwest of Ramanathapuram, 70 km west southwest of Pamban and 160 km northeast of Kanniyakumari. The associated wind speed is about 30-35 knots gusting to 40 knots. The deep depression likely to move slowly west southwestwards and cross Ramanathapuram and adjoining Thoothukudi districts during next 6 hours with wind speed of 30 knots gusting to 35 knots.

    It is very likely to weaken further into a depression during next 12 hours

    Forecast and Intensity
    ============================
    12 HRS: 8.9N 77.8E – 25 knots (Depression)

    As per satellite imagery, associated broken low/medium clouds with embedded intense to very intense convective cloud lay over Tamil Nadu, Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait with minimum cloud top temperature -93C.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 30 knots. State of the sea is rough to very rough. The estimated central pressure of the deep depression is 1000 hPa.

  7. Twelve Atlantic named storms made landfall in the continental U.S. (previous record: nine in 1916). There were plenty of storms to keep us guessing and conjecturing the final landfall intensity all summer long, and the collective groans or gasps as a storm would continue to have either a rightward or leftward bias from the forecast.

  8. This post by Dr. Masters is a great summary of how amazing the 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season was. My last regularly scheduled update of the season is at this link. I had a similar summary of the records broken this season put together in this final update. I had some other observations I noted, for example how Arthur and Bertha in May meant that there now have been six consecutive Atlantic seasons where the first named storm formed before June 1st. Is the hurricane season getting earlier? Something I didn’t mention in that udpate, but I think the Atlantic in addition to the eastern Pacific deserves to have X, Y, and Z names added to the list of names to reduce the occurrence of getting into the Greek alphabet, given what we have seen this year and in 2005. I also think the WMO should revisit the idea of retiring Greek alphabet names (perhaps for now simply removing Delta, Zeta, Eta, and Iota from the Greek list since the list is still long without those four names).

    I finally hope to get some lessons posted on the lessons page of the infohurricanes site in the above link, to explain how weather and hurricanes work in everyday terms but also in detail.

  9. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #27 – 23:30 PM IST December 3 2020
    DEEP DEPRESSION BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================

    At 18:00 PM UTC, The Deep Depression “Burevi” moved west southwestwards with a speed of 9 km/h during past six hours and lays centered over Gulf of Mannar near 9.1N 78.6E close to Ramanathapuram District coast, about 40 km southwest of Ramanathapuram, 70 km west southwest of Pamban and 160 km northeast of Kanniyakumari. The associated wind speed is about 25-30 knots with gusts of 35 knots.

    The deep depression would move west southwestwards and cross Ramanathapuram and adjoining Thoothukudi districts within a few hours with wind speed of 30-35 knots with gusts of 40 knots. It is very likely to weaken further into a depression by morning of December 4th.

    Forecast and Intensity
    ============================
    12 HRS: 8.8N 77.4E – 25 knots (Depression)

    As per satellite imagery, associated broken scattered to broken low/medium clouds with embedded intense to very intense convective cloud lay over Tamil Nadu and moderate to intense convection over Palk Strait, Gulf of Mannar & Comorin area with minimum cloud top temperature -93C

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 30 knots. State of the sea is rough to very rough. The estimated central pressure of the deep depression is 1000 hPa.

  10. Cyclone Warning was dropped for India.

    India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #25 – 17:30 PM IST December 3 2020
    DEEP DEPRESSION BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================

    At 12:00 PM UTC, The Cyclonic Storm “Burevi” moved westwards with a speed of 9 km/h during past six hours, weakened into a deep depression, and lays centered over Gulf of Mannar near 9.2N 79.1E close to Ramanathapuram District coast, about 20 km southwest of Pamban and 210 km east northeast of Kanniyakumari. The associated
    wind speed is about 30-35 knots with gusts of 40 knots.

    The deep depression would move west southwestwards and cross Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi districts during night (Dec 3rd) to early hours (Dec 4th) with wind speed of 25-30 knots gusting to 40 knots. It is very likely to weaken further into a depression by tomorrow morning (December 4th).

    Forecast and Intensity
    ============================
    12 HRS: 8.9N 78.0E – 25 knots (Depression)
    24 HRS: 8.7N 76.8E – Well Marked Low Pressure Area

    As per satellite imagery, the intensity of the system is T2.0. Associated broken scattered to broken low/medium clouds with embedded intense to very intense convective cloud lay over Tamil Nadu and moderate to intense convection over Palk Strait, Gulf of Mannar & Comorin area with minimum cloud top temperature -93C.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 30 knots. The estimated central pressure of the deep depression is 1000 hPa.

  11. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #21 – 5:30 AM IST December 3 2020
    CYCLONIC STORM BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================
    Cyclone Warning for southern Tamil Nadu and southern Kerala coasts (Red Message)

    At 0:00 AM UTC, The Cyclonic Storm “Burevi” moved west northwestwards with a speed of 11 km/h during past six hours and lay centered over Sri Lanka near 9.0N 80.3E, about 40 km east of Mannar, 120 km east southeast of Pamban (India) and 320 km east northeast of Kanniyakumari (India). It is very likely to move west northwestwards and emerge into Gulf of Mannar near Mannar coast during next 3 hours.

    The cyclonic storm with wind speed of 40-45 gusting to 50 knots would be centered very close to Pamban around noon of December 3rd. It would then move nearly west southwestwards across Pamban area by afternoon and cross southern Tamil Nadu coast between Pamban and Kanniyakumari during night of December 3rd and early morning of December 4th as a cyclonic storm with wind speed of 40-45 knots with gusts of 50 knots. Thus its impact on southern Tamil Nadu coastal districts is very likely to commence from forenoon on December 3rd initially over Ramanathapuram district and gradually towards Kanniyakumari district.

    Forecast and Intensity
    ============================
    12 HRS: 9.1N 78.9E – 40 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
    30 HRS: 8.9N 77.7E – 35 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
    42 HRS: 8.7N 77.0E – 30 knots (Deep Depression)

    Storm Surge Warning
    —————
    Storm surge of about 1.0 m height above astronomical tide is very likely to inundate low lying areas of south coastal Tamil Nadu (Ramanathapuram, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli and Kanniyakumari districts) and northwestern Sri Lanka coast during the time of landfall.

    As per satellite imagery, the system is over land of Sri Lanka. The center is not clearly defined and associated broken low/med clouds with embedded intense to very intense convective cloud over southwestern and adjoining west central Bay of Bengal between 8.0N to 14.0N and 77.0E to 84.0E and also over Tamil Nadu and adjoining Andhra Pradesh, Gulf of Mannar & n Sri Lanka with minimum cloud top temperature -93C.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 40 knots with gusts of 50 knots. State of the sea is very rough to high around the center. The estimated central pressure of the cyclonic storm is 998 hPa.

  12. Thanks Doc. In the past there has been analysis of model accuracy. I would be interesting to see how the latest models are doing in terms of: genesis, track, strength or over all patterns.

  13. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #14 – 8:30 AM IST December 2 2020
    CYCLONIC STORM BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================
    Cyclone Warning for Southern Tamil Nadu and southern Kerala coasts: (ORANGE MESSAGE)

    At 3:00 AM UTC, The Cyclonic Storm “Burevi” moved west northwestwards with a speed of 18 km/h during past six hours and lay centered over southwestern Bay of Bengal near 8.6N 83.0E, about 200 km east of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), 420 km east southeast of Pamban (India) and 600 km nearly east northeast of Kanniyakumari (India).

    It is very likely to intensify further during next 12 hours. It is very likely to move west northwestwards and cross Sri Lanka coast around latitude 9.0N, to north of Trincomalee during evening/night of December 2nd as a cyclonic storm with a wind speed of 45-50 knots gusting to 55 knots. It is very likely to move nearly west northwestwards thereafter, emerge into Gulf of Mannar and adjoining Comorin area on morning of December 3rd.

    The cyclonic storm with wind speed of 40-45 knots gusting to 50 knots would be centered very close to Pamban around noon of December 3rd. It would then move nearly west southwestwards very close to coast slowly and cross south Tamil Nadu coast between Kanniyakumari and Pamban during December 3rd night and December 4th early morning as a cyclonic storm with wind speed of 40-45 knots gusting to 50 knots. Thus its impact on southern Tamil Nadu coastal districts is very likely to commence from forenoon December 3rd initially over Ramanathapuram district and gradually towards Kanniyakumari district.

    Surge Warning
    —————
    Storm surge of about 1 meter height above the astronomical tide is likely to inundate low lying areas of eastern Sri Lanka coast during landfall.

    Storm surge of about 1.0 meter height above astronomical tide is very likely to inundate low lying areas of south coastal Tamil Nadu (Ramanathapuram, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli and Kanniyakumari districts) during the time of landfall.

  14. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #13 – 5:30 AM IST December 2 2020
    CYCLONIC STORM BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================
    Cyclone Alert for southern Tamil Nadu and southern Kerala coasts (YELLOW MESSAGE)

    At 0:00 AM UTC, The Cyclonic Storm “Burevi” moved west northwestwards with a speed of 15 km/h during past six hours and lay centered over southwestern Bay of Bengal near 8.4N 83.4E, about 240 km east southeast of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), 470 km east southeast of Pamban (India) and 650 km nearly east northeast of Kanniyakumari (India).

    It is very likely to intensify further during next 12 hours. It is very likely to move west-northwestwards and cross Sri Lanka coast around latitude 9.0N, close to north of Trincomalee during evening/night of December 2nd as a cyclonic storm with a wind speed of 45-50 knots gusting to 55 knots. It is very likely to move nearly west northwestwards thereafter, emerge into Gulf of Mannar and adjoining Comorin area on morning of December 3rd. The cyclonic storm with wind speed of 40-45 gusting to 50 would be centered very close to Pamban around noon of December 3rd. It would then move nearly west southwestwards and cross south Tamil Nadu coast between Kanniyakumari and Pamban around early morning of December 4th as a cyclonic storm with wind speed of 40-45 knots gusting to 50 knots.

    Forecast and Intensity
    ============================
    12 HRS: 9.0N 81.3E – 45 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
    24 HRS: 9.2N 80.2E – 40 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
    48 HRS: 8.9N 78.4E – 40 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
    72 HRS: 8.1N 76.4E – 30 knots (Deep Depression)

    Surge Warning
    —————
    Storm surge of about 1 meter height above the astronomical tide is likely to inundate low lying areas of eastern Sri Lanka coast during landfall.

    As per satellite imagery, the intensity of the system is T2.5/2.5. Broken low and medium clouds with embedded intense to very intense convection lay over southern Bay of Bengal between 6.0N to 13.5N and 81.5E to 90.0E and moderate to intense convection over Sri Lanka in association with the system. Minimum cloud top temperature is -93C.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 40 knots with gusts of 45 knots. State of the sea is very rough to high around the center. The estimated central pressure of the cyclonic storm is 998 hPa.

  15. India Meteorological Department
    Tropical Cyclone Advisory #11 – 23:30 PM IST December 1 2020
    CYCLONIC STORM BUREVI (BOB05-2020)
    ==============================================
    Cyclone Alert for southern Tamil Nadu and southern Kerala coasts (YELLOW MESSAGE)

    At 18:00 PM UTC, The Cyclonic Storm “Burevi” moved west northwestwards with a speed of 11 km/h during past six hours and lays centered over southwestern Bay of Bengal near 8.1N 84.2E, about 330 km east southeast of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), 560 km east southeast of Pamban (India) and 740 km east of Kanniyakumari (India).

    It is very likely to intensify further during next 12 hours. It is very likely to move west northwestwards and cross Sri Lanka coast between latitude 7.5N and 9.0N, close to Trincomalee during evening/night of December 2nd as a cyclonic storm with a wind speed of 40-45 gusting to 50 knots. It is very likely to move nearly westwards thereafter, emerge into Gulf of Mannar and adjoining Comorin area on morning of December 3rd. It would then move nearly west southwestwards and cross southern Tamil Nadu coast between Kanniyakumari and Pamban around early morning of December 4th.

    Forecast and Intensity
    ============================
    12 HRS: 8.5N 82.6E – 45 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
    24 HRS: 8.8N 80.7E – 40 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
    48 HRS: 8.7N 78.7E – 40 knots (Cyclonic Storm)

    Surge Warning
    —————
    Storm surge of about 1 meter height above the astronomical tide is likely to inundate low lying areas of eastern Sri Lanka coast during landfall.

    As per satellite imagery, the intensity of the system is T2.5/2.5. Broken low and medium clouds with embedded intense to very intense convection lay over southern Bay of Bengal between 5.5N to 13.5N and 80.0E to 90.0E and also over Sri Lanka in association with the system. Minimum cloud top temperature is -93C.

    3 minute sustained winds near the center is 35 knots with gusts of 40 knots. State of the sea is very rough to high around the center. The estimated central pressure of the cyclonic storm is 999 hPa.

  16. Thank you! I often ruminate about the long-term troubles of these storms, including those that don’t make the “sensational” headlines but bring widespread and often long-term rain and destruction. This kind of report helps to out the human toll of these troubles. I am particularly impressed by the metaphor about the Honduran Foreign Debt Forum (Fodesh). It reminds me of the moment I realized that many victims of Harvey were refugees from Katrina. What goes around comes around, and in this case not in a good way.

    twin hurricanes will set Honduras back 22 years in economic development.

    1. Hurricanes would have done less damage if a corrupt, born-again Yankee, traitors hadn’t been boosted into power by vicious Western governments like Obama, Clinton, Bush, Trump, and Canadians like Harper (see International Democrat Union (IDU)- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Democrat_Union ), Trudeau and others. Any relief funds will be fraudulently transferred into the US and other tax havens.

  17. Thank You Dr. for all of Your service over the decades and for this recap of the 2020 season. The deadly figures related to this season, including the large number of deaths from Eta is sobering. Apart from the gross numbers, another significant fact you have noted is the issue of 10 RI events this season. This RI number partially reflects the larger numbers in a hyper-active season, but also reflective of so many RI events we continue to see in recent seasons including RI near landfall that we have seen with so many storms. On the assumption that this RI trend continues, in spite of dry air pockets/issues that can affect any tropical storm, during their lifespan, I am thinking that elevated global water vapor, as the result of air temp and SST warming/evaporation, is creating a sweet spot situation that is helping storm cores (whether large or small) retain/create nice moisture pouches against other odds such as dry air and shear issues leading to an RI event. Know that research papers are forthcoming in pending years on this issue of more favorable elements that enhance RI chances for any given storm.

  18. This was definitely an interesting season to watch, and my heart goes out to all affected, especially on the Gulf Coast. I’m not counting this season out yet. Even if Kappa doesn’t materialize, we’ve had storms linger into January, and December just started.

  19. Well it was a hell of a season. With a ka Nina around until spring, it will be very interesting to see the December forecast from.CSU for 2021. Although not too accurate it would be somewhat of a guide what the next season forebodes

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