In 1934, severe drought afflicted three-quarters of the country. Massive dust clouds swept across the landscape, darkening the sky, and farmers watched — helpless — as winds blew away their bone-dry soil.
The Dust Bowl is a distant memory, but the odds of such a drought happening again are increasing. Benjamin Cook of the NASA Goddard Institute explains that climate change is likely to lead to less rainfall regionally and higher temperatures nationwide.
Cook: “Once you increase the temperatures, you increase evaporation of moisture from the soils. And this has an additional effect of further drying up the soils.”
The impacts on agriculture could be dire, but fortunately, the next major drought will not cause a second dust bowl, as we are now better able to prevent soil erosion.
Cook: “We have really widespread irrigation use, which allows many farmers to buffer the effects of drought more than they would’ve been able to do in the 1930s.”
Other helpful techniques include planting more drought-resistant strains of corn and wheat; leaving crop residue on the fields to cover the soil; and planting trees to break the wind.
Reporting credit: ChavoBart Digital Media.
Photo: Dust bowl photo from the 1930s (source: Wikipedia).
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